Who is responsible for NZ volcano tragedy?
It was a daily gamble that put profit before lives - New Zealand's most active volcano was an annual $4 million mountain of money for its owners and tour operators.
But volcano experts said that the daily trips to White Island that took 18,000 tourists a year to the volcano was "a disaster waiting to happen".
That disaster happened on Monday with an eruption of molten, mud, gas and ash that left nine missing, another six bodies confirmed dead and 30 in hospital with internal and external burns so bad they cannot speak or be recognised.
Distraught Adelaide father Brian Dallow said he had "great concerns" about his family being allowed to visit White Island.
His son, lawyer Gavin Dallow, 53, has been confirmed as one of the dead and his stepdaughter Zoe Hosking, 15, is also believed to be deceased.
Mr Dallow's wife Lisa, the mother of Zoe, was found in Hamilton Hospital by a family member.
Brian Dallow, 85, said his son could not have been "informed of the dangers, otherwise he would haven't gone. I'm quite sure of that. That's the only thing I can be really positive about."
"I think somebody has done the wrong thing over there, or didn't get things right, or something."
Dallow Snr said: "We mourn the loss of Gavin and Zoe."
"Gavin was a wonderful son and brother. We'll miss him at the cricket and we'll miss him at the football.
"He was a generous man, always helping his family and his community. Our hearts break at the loss of Zoe at such a young age.
Legal experts in New Zealand were predicting that the tour operator could face a maximum fine of $1.5 million if found guilty under health and safety laws.
The decision on whether to go or not was left to the official tour operator, White Island Tours, based on the advice of official volcano monitoring agency GeoNet, which increased the warning level to two weeks before the eruption.
Tour company chairman Paul Quinn, who has made his company resources available to authorities to help with the recovery of bodies, said: "GNS do the monitoring, and they advise us if there are any changes, and we operate around their guidelines in terms of what levels are stipulated.
"Level 3 and above we liaise more directly with GNS but that level 2 is still within our operational guidelines."
The decision was made to take the tourists despite the agency warning in November that the increased activity was similar to an active period leading up to an eruption in 2016. The island was deserted but the blast three years ago carved a new crater, caused landslides and coated the base with green ash.
A study published earlier this year used it to warn of the dangers to tourists. GNS Science volcanologist Brad Scott said operators were aware of the risk because it obliterated their walking tracks.
"The operators were 110 per cent aware of the impacts, because when they went out on their next trip, their walking track was no longer available," he told reporters in New Zealand.
"They had to change the route and walk a new track because the previous one was buried, so they were 110 per cent aware of the impact of eruptions, and would have seen the smashed solar panels and sheared survey pegs."
More questions are being asked over who exactly has jurisdiction over the privately owned island.
The Buttle family from Auckland have owned the island since 1936 and it is now controlled by three brothers, Peter, James and Andrew through their Whakaari Trust. James is the commodore of the Mahurangi Cruising Club and Peter is on the philanthropic Edmiston Trust Board.
They have called for a rahui, a traditional prohibition restricting access to the island, be respected. Peter Buttle told News Corp Australia: "The rahui does not apply to the police or the retrieving of the bodies."
But asked if it would be extended to a permanent ban on tourism to the volcano he said: "We are not commenting on these matters."
His mother, 91-year-old Beverly Buttle, said the family intended to keep the island and confirmed the tour operators pay to access it. "They pay me a retainer," she said.
Volcano experts worldwide have questioned sending tourists to an active volcano. Monash University volcano expert, professor Ray Cas said: "White Island has been a disaster waiting to happen for many years.
"I have always felt that it was too dangerous."
Cambridge University Volcano expert Clive Oppenheimer said the complex nature of the unpredictable volcano meant "allowing tourists to come close to an active day after day, year after year, is therefore likely at some point to lead to a close call or tragedy."
Their warning echoes the traditional view of the Maori who named it Te Puia - dramatic volcano.
That did not stop White Island Tours, which charges $229 for an island visit, capitalising on the popularity of the island and buying a new boat for its fleet to take tourists out to the volcano.